Vaccinations against which diseases are recommended for adults?
What vaccinations an adult needs to undergo depends on gender, age, lifestyle, travel planning, general health and what kind of vaccinations were received in childhood. About what kind of vaccinations are needed, you can find out from your doctor.
Depending on the situation, adults are vaccinated against:
- Hepatitis A and / or B
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Cory, mumps, rubella
- Pneumococcal disease
- Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis
Acquired anti-infective immunity
The main function of the immune system is to protect the genetic integrity of the body from the penetration of foreign substances. This protection is provided by a complex system of organs, cells and soluble factors (antibodies, cytokines, etc.). In the mechanisms of the body’s resistance to genetically alien information, two main phenomena are involved: nonspecific resistance and acquired immunity.
Acquired anti-infective immunity reflects the specific stability that arises in the body during its life on specific types of microorganisms. Acquired immunity is divided into natural and artificial. Each of them, in turn, is divided into active and passive immunity. Depending on the object of action, the acquired immunity is divided into antitoxic, antibacterial, antiviral immunity, immunity to fungi, parasites and helminths. There are also sterile and non-sterile, general and local immunity. Natural actively acquired immunity arises after the transferred diseases or natural immunization with microbial antigens penetrating into the body through the skin or mucous from the environment. Artificially acquired immunity develops after vaccination.
Passively acquired natural immunity arises through the mother’s milk or through the penetration of antibodies to the fetus’s mother through the placenta. Through the placental barrier penetrate IgG, while IgM, IgD, IgA do not have this ability. The colostrum contains secretory IgA and IgM, but it has very little IgG. Passively acquired artificial immunity arises when introducing ready-made antibodies in the form of immune sera, plasma, immunoglobulins. This also includes cases of adaptive immunity induced by B-lymphocytes. Passive immunity develops faster, less resistant and not as long as active immunity.
Acquired anti-infectious immunity is not isolated from the nonspecific resistance of the body. The mechanisms of natural resistance and specific immunity closely interact at all stages of postvaccinal immunity. Phagocytosis, the complement system, mediators of inflammation, lysozyme, etc. are extremely important for the development and manifestation of postvaccinal immunity.
In two types of resistance, the general function is inactivation, suppression of the viability and multiplication of the pathogen and removal of the antigenic material from the body. Natural resistance is the basis for the development of acquired immunity. All cellular and humoral factors of nonspecific resistance participate, as effector mechanisms, in the development of acquired immunity. At the same time, in the process of becoming acquired immunity, a new system of immunocompetent cells, soluble factors and antibodies is involved. This system has its own genetic control, different from the genetic control of nonspecific resistance.