What is immunization?
Immunization helps protect you from infectious diseases. And it also helps to reduce the spread of diseases and prevents epidemics. In most cases, immunization is given in the form of injections. A drug that is administered is called a vaccine, and the process is vaccinated or immunized.
The vaccine, as a rule, contains a small amount of weakened or dead forms of microorganisms or viruses that cause the disease. This amount is not enough for the development of the disease in reality. But it is enough to form an immune response, in which antibodies are produced. Subsequently, antibodies will be able to recognize and attack such microorganisms or viruses when ingested.
Sometimes vaccination does not prevent the disease completely but contributes to its easier flow. Some vaccinations are done only once. Other vaccinations are carried out in several stages.
Why is it necessary to be vaccinated?
- Immunization can protect you and your child from dangerous diseases.
- And it also helps to reduce the spread of diseases and prevents epidemics.
- It is much easier to undergo immunization than to treat the disease.
- Vaccines can cause serious side effects, but in very rare cases.
- Vaccination is also necessary for hiring or for traveling to other countries. Consult a doctor about the need for vaccination at least 6 months before departure.
- A woman who plans to become pregnant needs to consult a doctor about immunization. Those who live with a pregnant woman should also consult a doctor about the advisability of vaccination.
Vaccinations against which diseases are recommended for adults?
What vaccinations an adult needs to undergo depends on gender, age, lifestyle, travel planning, general health and what kind of vaccinations were received in childhood. About what kind of vaccinations are needed, you can find out from your doctor.
Depending on the situation, adults are vaccinated against:
- Chicken pox
- Hepatitis A and / or B
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Cory, mumps, rubella
- Pneumococcal disease
- Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis
What side effects can occur due to vaccination?
If side effects due to vaccination occur, in most cases they are insignificant: The doctor can explain in more detail what side effects may occur. Usually, the following side effects occur:
- Redness, slight swelling, or pain at the injection site.
- Slight temperature increase.
- Drowsiness, loss of appetite and unusual behavior (eg, staggering).
- Minor rash during 7-14 days after vaccination against varicella or after vaccination with measles, mumps, rubella vaccine.
- Temporary pain in the joints after vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella.
Severe complications, such as a fever above 40 ° C or breathing problems, are extremely rare. If you or your child have an unusual reaction after the vaccination, you should see a doctor.
For a child, the risk of a disease is much higher than the risk of developing severe complications due to vaccination.
Should I be vaccinated against anthrax or smallpox?
Anthrax and smallpox are especially dangerous diseases that can be used as biological weapons. And it’s scary to even think that anyone can use them for bioterrorism purposes. But the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control does not recommend vaccinating people against these diseases. Vaccines against these diseases are not available to the public.
The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that only a certain group of people should be immunized, for example, laboratory workers, medical personnel and the military.
Information on vaccination against anthrax and smallpox can be found on the websites of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
Vaccination and pregnancy
If a woman plans to become pregnant, the advisability of vaccination before pregnancy should be consulted with a doctor. If there is a need for vaccination against chickenpox, measles, mumps and rubella (CCP), in this case, vaccination must be completed at least 4 weeks before pregnancy.
The US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control recommends that vaccination be given during the influenza season by an inactivated influenza vaccine (“influenza vaccine”) to all women who plan to become pregnant or who are pregnant. Pregnant women can not be vaccinated against influenza with a nasal vaccine.
Pregnant women who need to be vaccinated against tetanus with a repeated dose can be vaccinated with a DM vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria). The American Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends women who were not previously vaccinated with DTP vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough), vaccination with a dose of DTP vaccine before or immediately after birth. Vaccination is carried out in order to protect the newborn from pertussis.
If a woman is pregnant, after the birth the child will be vaccinated according to the schedule of routine vaccination. If the family has other children, there is no need to speed up or postpone their vaccination.