This article explains different risk factors that cause asthma like Sex, Heredity, Atopy, Allergies, Hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract, Environmental factors, Cigarette smoke, Obesity, Pregnancy and much more.
Risk factors for asthma
There are usually causes or risk factors that trigger asthma and problems with the respiratory system. Asthma does not appear suddenly without any reason.
Let’s look at some of the asthma risk factors and see how they increase the likelihood of a person developing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing and lack of air (shortness of breath) that are associated with asthma. Having identified risk factors, a decision is made as to how to control the disease and what needs to be changed in the way of life. Although it is impossible to change sex or genetic heredity, but you can quit smoking, maintain a normal weight, often leave for fresh air. To control asthma is to control risk factors. Understanding all the risk factors will help prevent or at least manage asthma.
Risk Factor: Sex
Among children, asthma is more common in boys than in girls. It is not known why this happens, but some researchers believe that the respiratory ways in boys are less than in girls, which increases the risk of wheezing after suffering a cold or other viral disease. At the age of about 20 years, this difference between men and women practically disappears. And after 40 years, asthma is more common among women than men.
Risk Factor: Heredity
For your asthma, you can blame your mom or dad, or both. The genetic passport predetermines a propensity for asthma. It is believed that the cause of 3/5 of all cases of asthma is heredity. According to statistics, if a person has a parent with asthma, then he is 3-6 times more likely to get sick than someone who does not have asthma.
Risk factor: Hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract
It turns out that the hypersensitivity of the airways is another risk factor for asthma, although scientists disagree on this score. In asthma, the airways are hypersensitive and become inflamed as soon as they come into contact with asthma triggers such as allergens or cold air. Asthma does not develop in all people suffering from hypersensitivity of the respiratory tract, but the risk is very high.
Risk Factor: Atopy
Atopy means allergic hypersensitivity, which affects different parts of the body in different ways, which do not directly contact allergens (substances that cause an allergic reaction in the body). Atopy can include eczema (atopic dermatitis), atopic rhinitis, atopic conjunctivitis and asthma.
Studies have shown that 40% to 50% of children suffering from eczema or atopic dermatitis develop asthma. The results of the research prove that in children with atopic dermatitis in the future more serious and frequent exacerbation of asthma symptoms is manifested.
Risk factor: Allergies
Allergy and asthma often coexist. Allergy is the first indicator who is most prone to asthma. One nationwide study has shown that the level of bacterial toxins called endotoxins in home dust is directly related to the symptoms of asthma and the use of inhalers, bronchodilators and other medications used to treat asthma.
Sources of other allergens in the premises are animal protein (especially in cats and dogs), dust mites, cockroaches and mold.
Risk factor: Environmental factors
Contaminated indoor air, such as cigarette smoke, humidity and harmful fumes produced by cleaning agents and paints, can cause an allergic reaction and asthma. Environmental factors such as pollution, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, low temperatures, high humidity, provoke asthma attacks in sensitive organisms. Therefore, asthma attacks and hospitalization cases increase during a period of severe environmental pollution. Ozone is the main destructive element in smog. It causes coughing, shortness of breath and even chest pain, and also increases sensitivity to various infections. Sulfur dioxide, another component of smog, also irritates and causes the airways to contract, which leads to an attack of asthma.
Gas plates are the main source of domestic nitrogen oxide. Studies have shown that people who cook on a gas stove are more prone to wheezing, lack of breath, asthma attacks and hay fever than those who use other methods of cooking. But it was estimated that most of the houses installed gas stoves.
Weather changes also provoke asthma attacks. For example, cold air causes blockage of the airways, bronchoconstriction and a decrease in the ability to clear passages from excess mucus. In some people, an increase in humidity can provoke shortness of breath.
Risk Factor: Cigarette smoke
Several studies have confirmed that cigarette smoke is directly associated with an increased risk of developing asthma. In addition, there is evidence that smoking among adults also increases the risk of developing the disease. A link between passive smoking and the appearance of asthma at an early age has also been proven.
Risk factor: Obesity
A review of seven studies showed that 38% of asthma is more common in overweight people (body mass index is more than 25 but less than 30) and almost twice as often in obese people (body mass index of 30 and more). Scientists believe that in this case, the risk increases for non-allergic asthma, then for allergic.
Risk Factor: Pregnancy
Smoking of a woman during pregnancy can result from a decrease in the lung capacity of the baby. Premature birth is also considered a risk factor for the development of asthma.