This article will explain Bronchial asthma in detail, Exciters of bronchial asthma, Signs and symptoms of bronchial asthma, Diagnosis & treatment of bronchial asthma.
Have you ever heard the term “bronchial asthma”? And what does it mean? When talking about bronchial asthma, in fact, they talk about chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, which causes periodic “attacks” of coughing, wheezing, lack of air or feelings of chest tightness.
Statistics show that more than 22 million people around the world, including 6.5 million children under the age of 18, suffer from asthma. Allergy plays an important role in the development of asthma, but this is not the only reason. In asthma, heredity can be blamed – there is a strong genetic element responsible for the development of this disease.
Because of certain symptoms, asthma is associated with mast cell, eosinophilic leukocyte and T-lymphocyte. Mast cells are allergic cells that release substances such as histamine. Histamine is the cause of a stuffy nose and cold in cold weather or allergies to pollen, and therefore, narrowing of the airways during asthma or rash with skin allergies. An eosinophilic leukocyte is a type of white blood cell that causes an allergic reaction. T-lymphocytes are also white blood cells that cause an allergic reaction and inflammatory processes.
These cells are involved in the development of the inflammatory process in the airways during asthma, which in turn makes the airways hypersensitive, causes their narrowing, leads to respiratory symptoms and chronic illness. In some people, inflammation causes a feeling of tightness in the chest and choking, especially during sleep (nocturnal asthma) or early in the morning. In others, the same symptoms can occur only during physical exertion (stress asthma). Because of inflammatory processes, hypersensitive airways respond to the slightest external stimuli.
Allergy is strongly associated with bronchial asthma and other respiratory diseases, such as chronic sinusitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses), middle ear infections and nasal polyps. Recent surveys of people with asthma have shown that those with asthma and allergies are more likely to wake up at night due to asthma attacks, miss work because of seizures and require serious medical supervision.
Exciters of bronchial asthma
The pathogens of asthma include:
- Tobacco smoke
- Infectious diseases such as colds, flu and pneumonia
- Allergies such as food, pollen, moisture, dust and animal hair
- Physical exercise
- Environmental pollution and toxins
- Weather conditions, especially sharp temperature changes
- Medications (such as aspirin, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and beta-blockers)
- Nutritional supplements (eg, glutamate sodium)
- Emotional stress and nervousness
- Singing, laughing or crying
- Smoking, perfumes with strong odours or sprays
- Reflux of stomach acid
Signs and symptoms of bronchial asthma
During bronchial asthma, one or more of the following signs and symptoms may manifest:
- Lack of breathing, shortness of breath
- Breast in chest
- Severe bouts of coughing or coughing that makes you wake up at night
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma
Since asthma attacks do not always begin during a visit to a doctor, it is very important to correctly describe your signs and symptoms. It is necessary to inform the doctor when the symptoms most often worsen: during exercise, after hypothermia or after smoking. To establish the correct diagnosis, the following tests and tests are performed:
Spirometry. The pulmonary function test is necessary for measuring lung volume and examining their performance. To pass this test, you need to inhale into a device called a spirometer.
The maximum rate of exhalation. For this, a device called a pneumotachometer is used. You breathe deeply into the tube and thus the volume of the lungs is measured. The measurement of the maximum expiratory flow rate allows one to observe how the disease passes.
Radiography of the chest. The doctor may prescribe a chest x-ray to identify any other diseases caused by such symptoms.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
Having diagnosed, the doctor will recommend taking certain medications (inhalers and pills) and changes in lifestyle to treat and prevent subsequent asthma attacks. For example, long-acting anti-inflammatory inhalers are necessary for the treatment of inflammatory processes accompanied by asthma.
Through these inhalers into the lungs, steroids are administered in small doses with minimal side effects with proper administration. The fast-acting bronchodilator starts acting immediately, quickly opening the airways in sudden asthma attacks.
If you have bronchial asthma, then make sure that you know exactly how to use inhalers. Always carry an inhaler in your bag in case of an asthma attack. Although there is no remedy that would relieve asthma once and for all, but now, there are excellent medications that help to prevent the asthma symptoms from exacerbating and restrain the development of the disease and allow you to live a normal and full life.