Bronchial asthma is a chronic recurrent lung disease. At the heart of the disease is an inflammatory process that causes the development of bronchial obstruction, which leads to violations of pulmonary ventilation and difficulty in moving away from the bronchial mucus, but manifests itself in regularly recurring episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath, a feeling of congestion in the chest and cough. During the disease, various cellular elements are involved – fat and dendritic cells, eosinophils, T-lymphocytes. Bronchial obstruction develops in response to various external and internal stimuli and can be reversed completely or partially, spontaneously or under the influence of medical procedures.
The main symptoms of bronchial asthma are episodes of dyspnea, wheezing, coughing and stuffiness in the chest. Significant is the appearance of symptoms after exposure to the allergen, seasonal variability of symptoms and the presence of relatives with bronchial asthma or other atopic diseases. For the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, an anamnesis of the disease is studied, spirography is done, and a blood test for the content of hormones and eosinophilic cationic protein will also be informative. The level of the latter correlates with the clinical symptoms of asthma and the indicators of the function of breathing, allowing to assess the degree of inflammation in the respiratory tract of the bronchial tree.
The main factors of development of asthma include hereditary and professional predisposition. In more rare cases, a disturbance in the functioning of the respiratory system can provoke an ecological situation, a diet, contact with various microorganisms and household chemicals.
Specialist in the field of family medicine Getman Olesya Ivanovna emphasizes that children whose parents are allergic people have the greatest risk of getting sick after having an infectious disease. Nevertheless, the presence of such a probability does not exclude the possibility of protecting yourself from the disease – in spite of the fact that there is no specific immunoprophylaxis against asthma, the defeat of the respiratory system may not develop in a person with a strong immune system that leads a healthy lifestyle.
The professional factors in the development of bronchial asthma include the effects of biological and mineral dust, harmful gases and fumes, contact with chemicals and reagents. The groups of risk include doctors, workers in the chemical and other branches of heavy and light industry. Already developed professional asthma does not disappear, but a decrease in contact with a harmful factor can reduce the frequency of seizures.
Speaking about the treatment, Olesya Ivanovna draws attention to the need for a comprehensive use of vasoconstrictor and anti-inflammatory drugs. When the mechanism of the disease is already started, consumption of only vasoconstrictive drugs is rarely effective, it is necessary to control the production of mucus through the consumption of anti-inflammatory drugs. For the treatment of asthma use hormonal and non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs. There is an opinion that hormonal medications lead to a number of disorders in the functioning of the body and for this reason patients are more inclined to treatment with non-hormonal drugs. Our expert hastens to destroy this delusion – similar hormonal drugs act exclusively locally and are not capable of affecting other than the respiratory system. Indications for non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs are asthma accompanying allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis, as well as the state of remission in case of well-controlled asthma. In all other cases it is very advisable to use hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs that break the connection between the action of the allergen and the production of mucus and, thus, suppress the probability of exacerbation of the disease, thereby achieving a long-term remission.
In case of proper treatment, the reason for a single attack of suffocation can be direct contact with the allergen, excessive physical stress or stress factor. Regular and systematic attacks with proper treatment do not occur. The effect of external factors on the occurrence of an asthmatic attack can be leveled by increasing the dose of anti-inflammatory, less often the vasoconstrictor. It is important to note that vasoconstrictive drugs are addictive, which is a reason to think about the frequency of their use.
With the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, you need to think about adjusting your lifestyle and exclude increased physical exertion, frequent stressful situations, excessive alcohol consumption and, of course, smoking. The daily regimen should include regular meals, moderate exercise (regular walking or light athletic training during the period of remission), curative action has hardening and yoga.
The elimination of the allergen certainly facilitates the course of the disease, but if this is not possible, the use of an allergen-specific immunotherapy is advisable. It is also called allergovaccination or “vaccination against allergies”. The essence of the method is that the patient during the remission is administered an ultra-small dose of an allergen, which provokes the development of a specific reaction of the organism and reduces the sensitivity to the allergen. ASIT greatly facilitates the course of asthma and concomitant diseases. Subsequently, it is possible to reduce doses or even eliminate anti-inflammatory drugs.