Human Anatomy » Respiratory System in Detail
The human respiratory system is a set of organs that provide external respiration in the human body, or the exchange of gases between blood and the environment, and a number of other functions.
Gas exchange is made easy and normally is aimed at absorbing oxygen from the inhaled air and releasing into the external environment of carbon dioxide formed in the body. In addition, the respiratory system is involved in such important functions as thermoregulation, voice formation, smell, humidification of the inhaled air. Pulmonary tissue also plays an important role in such processes as hormone synthesis, water-salt and lipid metabolism. In the abundantly developed vascular system of the lungs, blood is deposited. The respiratory system also provides mechanical and immune protection against environmental factors.
The main organs of the respiratory system are the lungs. The lungs are located in the chest cavity, surrounded by bones and muscles of the chest. Lungs provide oxygen to the body and remove from it a gaseous product of life – carbon dioxide. Atmospheric air enters the lungs and is removed from them due to a system of tubes called airways. The upper and lower respiratory tracts are distinguished. The transition of the upper respiratory tract to the lower ones takes place at the intersection of the digestive and respiratory systems in the upper part of the larynx. The system of the upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, nasopharynx and oropharynx, and also partially the oral cavity since it too can be used for breathing. The system of the lower respiratory tract consists of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli.
For the implementation of the respiratory act, an adaptation is required that ensures the flow of a jet of fresh air on the respiratory surface, i.e., the circulation of air. In this regard, in addition to the lungs, there are airways, namely: nasal cavity and pharynx (upper respiratory tract), then the larynx, trachea and bronchi (lower respiratory tract). A peculiarity of these ways is the construction of their walls from intractable tissues (bone and cartilaginous), due to which the walls do not collapse and the air, despite a sharp change of pressure from positive to negative, freely circulates with inspiration and expiration.
The inhaled air passes to the larynx through the nasal cavity (or mouth) and pharynx.
For each breath into the lungs, about 500 ml of air is ingested. At the deepest inhalation, an additional 1500 ml can be inhaled. The volume of air passing through the lungs in 1 minute is called the minute volume of respiration. Normally it is 6-9 litres. At sportsmen at run increases to 25-30 l.
Related anatomical terms:
- Laryngeal protrusion
- Voice fold
- Voice device
- Vox appendage
- Laryngeal Ventricle
- Adam’s apple (Adam’s apple)
- Nasal septum
- Nasal cavity
- Sub-voice cavity
- Laryngeal cavity
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