Human Anatomy (from the Greek anatemno – dissecting) is a science that studies the structure and form of the human body and its constituent organs in connection with their function and development. It belongs to one of the most important branches of the biological sciences – morphology.
This section of the site contains information on the structure of a person from the point of view of its external, plastic form on the basis of muscle mass and skeleton.
What is Human Anatomy?
Human Anatomy is a science that studies the origin, development, shape and structure of the human body. Anatomy studies both the external forms and proportions of the human body and its parts, as well as individual organs, namely their structure and microscopic structure. Human anatomy is closely connected with physiology – the science of the vital functions of the body and organs. Not knowing the structure of the body cannot understand the reasons for his illness. Not knowing the functions that each system of organs performs, it would be impossible not only to treat the simplest diseases but even to make a diagnosis.
History of Human Anatomy
Some information on the structure of the human body in connection with the experience of embalming corpses were obtained in Ancient Egypt, contained in the treatment of the Chinese emperor Gwang Ti (about 3 thousand years BC).
In the Indian Vedas (1st millennium BC), it was indicated that a man has 500 muscles, 90 tendons, 900 ligaments, 300 bones, 107 joints, 24 nerves, 9 organs, 400 vessels with 700 branches. One of the founders of the anatomy of Aristotle, studying anatomy in animals, pointed out the difference between tendons and nerves, introduced the term “aorta”.
Representatives of the Alexandrian School of Physicians (3rd century BC) made autopsies and vivisection of convicted prisoners. They discovered the diaphragm, studied the skeleton and the insides, made up the notion of lymphatic vessels, nerves, heart valves, brain membranes, etc. K. Galen (2nd century), based on previously obtained, often unreliable, data, as well as on autopsy, systematized anatomical information. His anatomical representations served as the basis of medicine for almost 1,5 thousand years since the church in the Middle Ages prohibited the opening of corpses and the study of anatomy.
The flourishing of science and art in the Renaissance was accompanied by the development of anatomical studies. The main provisions of the teachings of K. were revised. Galena and created a base for the development of modern anatomy. In the 16th century. Leonardo da Vinci, A. Vesalius, G. Fallopius, B. Eustachius and others received the first systematic data on the structure of various organs of the human body. Anatomical studies formed the basis or contributed to the emergence of a number of major discoveries in biology.
The discovery in 1628 by W. Harvey of the circulation of blood in the body was a turning point in the study of the circulatory system. The description of the lymphatic vessels of the mesentery by the Italian anatomist G. Azelli served to further develop the theory of the lymphatic system. M. Malpighi in 1661 opened circulation in the capillaries, confirming the unity of the arterial and venous parts of the bloodstream. The Frenchman K. Bisha (18th century) laid the foundations of the doctrine of tissues and created the prerequisites for the development of science about the microscopic structure of tissues and organs – histology.
G. Cuvier summarized numerous data on the comparative anatomy of animals and paleontology, which allowed us to establish the principle of correlation in the development of organs. OpeningM. Shleiden (1838) and T. Schwann (1839) cells as a structural unit of tissues in plants and animals was evidence of the unity of the organic world and contributed to the improvement of methodological techniques of microscopic anatomy. Cellular theory was subsequently widely used in the development of R. Virchow pathological anatomy. Having discovered the law of hereditary transmission of signs G. Mendel (1865) laid the foundations of genetic studies of the mechanisms of formation processes. The evolutionary theory developed by Ch. Darwin ensured the development of the evolutionary direction in anatomy.
Human anatomy demonstrates how completely and at the same time the human body is vulnerable, where damage to one organ can cause a failure of all organ systems in the body.
There are 13 vital systems of the human body, information about which is set out in a user-friendly form and with illustrative illustrations:
- Respiratory system
- The immune system
- Bone system and skin
- Hematopoietic system
- Lymphatic system
- Genitourinary system
- Muscular system
- Nervous system
- Digestive system
- Reproductive and reproductive system
- The cardiovascular system
- System of sense organs
- Endocrine system